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By Alan Campbell Wares

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The following contrasts illustrate vowel length: *iyd"w 'tooth', yiyd'w 'willow'; Ίχ 'say', > i , x 'screw-bean tree'. Stress falls on the final syllable of the word root, as in other Yuman languages. Pitch does not appear to be significant. IX. THE PHONEMES O F TIPAI The segmental phonemes of Tipai are : Consonants : ρ m Semiconsonants : Vowels : t s η 1 1 r t c s ny ly k χ kw xw w u o y i e a The series of stops in Tipai is the same as that in Cocopa. In final position, /c/ has a palatalized release [t*], but elsewhere it is affricated.

19. " The Upland Arizona group is identical with Kroeber's, which I have termed "Northern Yuman". Such a classification is no doubt of interest in a discussion of the ethnography of Yuman tribes, but since cultural traits may be shared by groups that speak entirely different languages (as, for example, the Luiseño and the Diegueño), it is of doubtful importance in a linguistic study, and is mentioned here only in passing. * Drucker, Philip, Cultural Element Distribution, XVII: Yuman-Piman, U. of California Press, 1941, p.

Unstressed vowels may occur without a preceding or following glottal stop, as in uri' 'coals', was'ámi 'doorway'. Examples of Walapai vowel phonemes are : high front /i/ : 'il 'worm', sit 'one' ; mid front /e/: 'él 'louse', hé' 'tail'; low central /a/: 'âw 'grandchild', mât 'earth'; mid back /o/: 'óp 'no', cok 'juniper'; high back /u/:yú' 'eye', /^w/'long'. Vowel length is illustrated by the contrasts between the short and long vowel in the following pairs of words : pik 'dead', Oi'k 'to drink' ; hé' 'tail', sé"' 'buzzard' ; pá' 'arrow, bullet', pâ·' 'person, man' ; uri»â' 'road', nvfr' 'sun' ; yo' 'tooth', iyó ' 'willow' ; yú' 'eye', iyú•' 'owl'.

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